NAME THAT COUNTRY

 

Kayseri Sultan Hani is one of many caravanserais in the Cappadocia region of our mystery country. The Silk Road and other well-traveled trade routes connecting Europe, Asia and North Africa were punctuated with these hostels, which provided shelter for trade caravans. At the caravanserai, merchants found shelter, food and supplies for themselves and their animals, as well as a range of services and plenty of opportunities for networking and deal making. The first caravanserais were built in Anatolia (of which Cappadocia is a part) by Seljuk sultans, who ruled from the 10th to the 13th century. Caravanserais were square or rectangular, with fortress-like walls and a single, often elaborate, portal. Inside, chambers and stalls were arranged around a central courtyard, usually with a small mosque in the center.

Can you name that country? 
See below for answers.

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A Solar Eclipse of Peace

 

Today at Ya’lla Tours HQ in Portland, Oregon, we have just come in from viewing the solar eclipse. It was awesome! Just north of the path of totality, we saw the sun 99% covered.

Some 2500 years ago, the Greek philosopher/scientist Thales of Miletus was the first person ever to predict an eclipse, according to the ancient historian Herodotus. If this is true, it’s a mystery how the prediction was made, as it was another 200 years before the Greeks understood what causes solar eclipses, the moon passing between the earth and the sun.

Legend tells that the Eclipse of Thales occurred during a battle in a long running war between the Medes and the Lydians near the Halys River in what is now Anatolian Turkey. Taking the eclipse as an admonition by the gods, the combatants dropped their weapons and called a truce. Both sides accepted the Halys River as the border between their lands and peace ensued. Based on modern scientific dating, that eclipse, and hence the battle, happened in 585 BCE.

NAME THAT COUNTRY Episode 40

 

The world’s steepest ancient theater appears to be sliding right off the acropolis of Pergamum. Don’t worry, it has been there for 2,000 years. Just out of the picture, dazzling marble remains are scattered across the mountain top and the Temple of Dionysus, the foundations of the great Alter of Zeus and the agora are terraced into the slope.

Pergamum was an important Greco-Roman city, home to 200,000 people at its peak. The 3rd largest library of antiquity was here and people from all across the Roman world came for health and wellness treatments at the Sanctuary of Asclepius. One of the Seven Churches of Revelation was in Pergamum and it’s a common stop on Christian pilgrimage tours of our mystery country. 

Can you name that country? 
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Pergamum in Turkey

Temple of Trajan, Pergamum, Turkey

Temple of Trajan, Pergamum, Turkey

Pergamum is an ancient Greco-Roman city in western Turkey, about 15 miles from the Aegean coast, 60 miles from Izmir, the closest airport, 110 miles from Ephesus, and about 320 miles from Istanbul. The modern town on the site is Bergama.

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The Underground Cities of Cappadocia

Derinkuyu underground city, Cappadocia, Turkey

Derinkuyu underground city, Cappadocia, Turkey

There are 40 some underground cities in the Nesehir and Kayseri provinces of Cappadocia in central Turkey. Some estimates put the number into the hundreds, while others count around 40. My guess is the discrepancy lies in how one defines “city.”
For our purposes, and those of the average tourist, 40 is more than enough. Most are not open to the public anyway, so we’ll focus on two that are: Derinkuyu and Kaymakli.

Extending down 200 feet with 8 levels, Derinkuyu is the deeper of the two cities but Kaymakli has more sprawl. They are connected to each other by tunnels, as are many of the other underground cities.

The cities possibly originated in Hittite times, around 1200 BCE, but were certainly, significantly expanded over the centuries, especially during Roman persecution of Christians in the 2nd and 3rd centuries and again in the 7th century, with the Arab invasions. Really, this part of the world was a superhighway for invaders, and the inhabitants had reason to hide on a regular basis. They got very good at it.

The underground cities were set up to shelter as many as 20,000 for long-term living and include sleeping quarters, kitchens, storehouses, churches, stables and even a winery. Ventilation shafts doubled as wells. Passageways allowed single file movement only, so intruders could be easily picked off one at a time. Giant boulders served as rolling doors that could only be removed from the inside. The doors had small holes in the center, just the size and height to spear the unwelcome in the gut, or thereabouts. For quick and easy access, most above-ground homes had openings to the underground right inside or very near the houses.

For most visitors, it’s enough to see one of the two cities. Each takes about an hour to tour. There’s very little signage, so a guide is highly recommended. Passageways are narrow but allow people of average height to get through with minimal stooping. Lighting is good, but if you’re claustrophobic, you might want to stick to the plentiful and thoroughly satisfying above-ground attractions of Cappadocia.

To get to Cappadocia, there are daily flights from Istanbul to Kayseri, in the heart of the region. Ankara is about a 3-hour drive. Istanbul is about a 10-hour drive. The more comprehensive tours of the western half of Turkey will do a semi-circle from Ankara, through Cappadocia, down to the coast and on to Istanbul.

See my last post Cappadocia Above and Below for descriptions of other things to see in Cappadocia.

Click to see our tours that include underground visits in Cappadocia.

Cappadocia Above and Below

Cappadocia is a region in central Turkey known for surreal sights, rich history and laid-back hospitality. Heavy volcanic activity followed by millions of years of erosion of the soft volcanic ash deposits and the harder layers of basaltic lava which covered them left over a hundred square miles of constantly surprising landscapes, sometimes comical, sometimes stunningly beautiful, often just plain weird.

Historical records tell us the Hittites lived in the area around 3,000 years ago, but it was certainly inhabited long before that. Early Christians settled there in the fourth century, perhaps earlier, because of the remoteness from the Roman centers along the coast. Three major figures in Christian history, the Cappadocian Fathers – St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nyssa and St. Gregory of Nazianus – came from Cappadocia and were involved in the establishment of monasteries there. Scores of rock-cut, frescoed, Byzantine churches, chapels and monasteries are tucked into the crazy landscape like precious jewels.

Apple Church, Goreme, Cappadocia

Apple Church, Goreme, Cappadocia

Buckle Church, Goreme, Cappadocia

Buckle Church, Goreme, Cappadocia

St. Barbara Church, Goreme, Cappadocia

St. Barbara Church, Goreme, Cappadocia

Cappadocia contains many different areas of fantastical rock formations, rock-cut and cave dwellings and churches, underground cities and magnificent scenery. Two days is enough time to see the highlights but you could easily spend a week or more, especially if you want to hike or cycle and explore a bit off the beaten path. Here below is a brief overview of the main attractions:

The Goreme Open Air Museum is #1 for quantity and quality of churches in combination with scenic wonders. If you’re short on time, go here first.

About 4 miles to the southwest is the highest point in Cappadocia, the Uchisar Citadel, which is fun to explore, and the Pigeon Valley between Goreme and Uchisar is a beautiful, moderate hike.

About 3.5 miles north of Goreme is Avanos, a pretty town on the Kızılırmak River.
Go there to buy the local pottery, which has been the town’s main industry for thousands of years.

Head east about 3 miles off the road to Avanos to find the Zelve Open Air Museum. Zelve consists of three adjoining valleys, where you’ll find cone formations and fairy chimneys, similar to Goreme, but nowhere near as many churches. Zelve gets far fewer tourists and what it lacks in frescos it makes up for in tranquility and open space.
Very good trails and signage run through the valleys. When you’re exploring Zelve, think about the people who lived in the rock-cut dwellings right up until 1952.

The underground cities of Kaymakli and Derinkuyu are about 18 and 24 miles southwest of Goreme, respectively. I’ll write more about these in my next post.

The Ihlara Valley is a beautiful valley with rock-cut churches and monasteries but none as dramatic or well-preserved as those of Goreme. However, the scenery alone is worth a visit. It’s about 75 miles southwest of Goreme.

Ihlara Valley, Cappadocia

Ihlara Valley, Cappadocia

On the way to Ihlara, stop at the carefully preserved Ottoman Greek town of Guzelyurt. Cappadocia was historically inhabited by Christian Greeks until a population exchange after World War I moved Greek-speaking inhabitants to Greece and Muslims living in Greece to Turkey. Guzelyurt also has a small underground city.

To get to Cappadocia, there are daily flights from Istanbul to Kayseri, in the heart of the region. Ankara is about a 3-hour drive. Istanbul is about a 10-hour drive. The more comprehensive tours of the western half of Turkey will do a semi-circle from Ankara, through Cappadocia, down to the coast and on to Istanbul.

For Cappadocia accommodations, Goreme, Urgup, Uchisar and Avanos are most central. Goreme has the most tourist facilities but we prefer the slightly removed towns of Urgup and Uchisar, which are quieter and tend toward higher quality services.

Click to see our Turkey tours that include Cappadocia.