This 2nd-century Roman theater is carved into a hillside in the middle of a lively national capital. Known as Philadelphia when the theater was built, the city was a member of the Decapolis, a group of 10 culturally-similar cities in the eastern Roman Empire. The theater seats 6,000 and is still used for concerts and other performances.
Can you name that city and country?
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These frescos are located on a vaulted ceiling in Qasr Amra, one of a series of desert palaces (qasr means palace in Arabic) built in the 7th and 8th centuries by Umayyad caliphs. The palaces are valuable examples of early Islamic architecture and art.
Can you name that country?
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The fortified mountain palace of Machaerus is infamous as the place where Salome danced for the head of John the Baptist, whom her step father Herod Antipas had imprisoned there for two years.
At that time Herod the tetrarch heard the reports about Jesus, and he said to his attendants, “This is John the Baptist; he has risen from the dead! That is why miraculous powers are at work in him.”
Now Herod had arrested John and bound him and put him in prison because of Herodias, his brother Philip’s wife, for John had been saying to him: “It is not lawful for you to have her.” Herod wanted to kill John, but he was afraid of the people, because they considered John a prophet.
On Herod’s birthday the daughter of Herodias danced for the guests and pleased Herod so much that he promised with an oath to give her whatever she asked. Prompted by her mother, she said, “Give me here on a platter the head of John the Baptist.” The king was distressed, but because of his oaths and his dinner guests, he ordered that her request be granted and had John beheaded in the prison. His head was brought in on a platter and given to the girl, who carried it to her mother. John’s disciples came and took his body and buried it. Then they went and told Jesus. (Matthew 14:1-12)
Machaerus is one of three fortified desert retreats built by Herod the Great (father to Herod Antipas); the others being Masada and Herodium. It’s the only one east of the Jordan river, today in the country of Jordan, 40km south of Madaba, near the village of Mukawir. The stronghold at Machaerus was first built by the Maccabees, the Jewish dynasty that ruled the region for about 100 years before the Roman client-King Herod the Great launched his dynasty in 37 BCE. Machaerus was destroyed by the Romans in 57 BCE and restored by Herod around 30 BCE.
There’s little excavation and restoration and no signage at Machaerus, so bring your imagination and a guide. Aside from the historical context, the serene atmosphere and 180-degree views of the Dead Sea and rugged, deeply etched desert are well worth the climb, especially at sunset. The walk from the parking area to the top looks more daunting than it is. A moderately fit person can do it in 15-20 minutes. Wear sturdy walking shoes, carry water and avoid midday heat.